The lenses shown are for the Nikon F100 film camera, and under each lens
are examples of photos taken with that lens to show the effects the lens
You can think of 50mm as being the standard lens for images that look
“normal” to the human eye, and lenses with a greater focal length (eg
200mm) as telephoto, good for closing in on distant subjects or for
picking out detail and excluding unwanted objects from the shot. Lenses
with a shorter focal length (eg 20mm) are considered wide-angle lenses,
valuable when you want to fit a lot in to your view, such as a big
building that is quite close to you, a landscape or a large group of
people. Lenses with a focal length lower than 20mm (eg 16mm) are known
as “ultra-wide angle” lenses. One advantage of shorter focal length
lenses is that they have a larger depth of field, which means you can
get both close and distant objects in focus; on the other hand they
suffer from some distortion towards the edge of the image. This feature
can be deliberately exploited for effect with the fisheye lens.
||16mm fisheye lens: this lens uses
curvilinear optics to produce photos with a bowing effect. The focal
length of the lens is very short, so perspective effects can be
exaggerated: objects in the middle distance look further away and
background features almost disappear, while objects in the foreground
can look massive. The fisheye lens gives you a really big depth of
field, so that everything in the shot can remain sharp in the image, no
matter what distance it is from the camera. These lenses are often used
creatively in landscape photography to give a different effect. The
fisheye lens can also be useful in photographing architectural features,
because the extreme wide angle of view permits plenty of detail to be
shown, and the distortions produced can give you dramatic effects.
20mm wide angle lens: is a wide angle lens with a
slightly narrower field of view than the fisheye, but it also doesn’t
give the curved effect visible seen in some of the photos in the first
column. It allows you to fit into the shot almost all of the building in
the 4th row down, while the lake and river views in rows 5 and 6 clearly
show that the image cannot include quite as much of the foreground as
with the fisheye.
|50mm lens: the width of
the scene is reduced still further with this lens, so less is included
in the image, but the photos in the 3rd column allow you to see much
more of the distant scene. In the pictures of the church and far shore
in row 9, notice how the church has disappeared from the foreground
altogether in the 50mm lens shot, while the buildings on the opposite
bank are clearer.
200mm lens: using the telephoto lens, the washing on
the balcony in row 4, which was hardly noticed in the first two photos,
becomes central to the image. Similarly, the photographer is able to
pick out specific objects and exclude others: for example just one of
the apartment blocks is seen in the 2nd row down, and in row 8, the red
ball becomes a key part of the image, and the surrounding street scene
is no longer visible.
Note:all the photographs were taken with a Nikon F100 film camera,
using Fujichrome 100F film.
The details of the lenses used are given at the top of each column.