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Architecture 2

 
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Architecture is the combination of the design and construction of a building which is satisfying in both a practical and an aesthetic sense. Many of the earliest civilizations built on a huge scale to honour their gods and idols; the pyramids are just one example.
The Greeks were the first to use the perception of proportion and harmony, a concept that continues to influence architecture to the present day.
Roman architects and engineers became masters in the use of arches and domes, which offered considerable flexibility for spacious design. Medieval European architecture reached its zenith with Gothic art and architecture, which flourished from the mid-12th to the end of the 15th centuries.

Gothic style

The Gothic style is primarily associated with church design, characterised by rib and shaft ceilings, the pointed arch and flying buttresses. Renaissance, the intellectual and cultural movement dedicated to reviving classical art and architecture, began in Italy in the 14th century, spread to northern Europe and flourished up to the mid-16th century. Baroque architecture dominated architectural styles mainly in European Catholic countries in the 17th and early 18th centuries. This had its roots in Italy and was a reaction against classicism. The Baroque style was typified by curved and broken lines and ornate decoration. The early 19th century saw the advent of Gothic revival, an architectural style initially associated with Romanticism and pronounced in both the USA and northern Europe. Over 170 churches were built in Gothic revival style in England. One of the last buildings to be built in this style was the London Law Courts.
The technical advances of the 20th century, especially in concrete technology, opened the way to the simplistic cubic style of Bauhaus, a German school of design that was closed by the Nazis in 1933, and the more flamboyant Art Deco style, which influenced architecture and all areas of design throughout the 1930s until the beginning of World War II.



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